The kinematic analysis of direct conituous layout backward somersault in male floor exercise

Por: Hsiao-yun Chang, Ming-feng Kao, Shih-tsung Chang e Yuan-mei Sun.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Nowadays, artistic gymnastics are advancing toward the direction of presenting exercise with great difficulty and compact connections. Therefore, new exercises with great difficulty never stop being created from old ones. Although there are many new exercise created, a few ones are still designed by combining those existing ones. For example, direct continuous backward somersault in floor exercise is just the presentation of this tendency. However, the way of connecting and doing the exercise of a direct continuous backward somersault are different from the ones while doing the solo salto backward. It is necessary to focus on the direct continuous backward somersault in order to get further understanding.


In this research, high-speed camera and Peak-performance motion analysis system were used to record the exercise of the 20 gymnastic competitor (mean age 20.2 yrs, SD 5.6; height 164.67±5.80 cm, weight 60.08 ± 7.31kg) delegation at 1996 Taiwan Area Game and China Motor Cup Competition in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 2000. Body segment parameters were determined using the elliptical zone mathematical modeling technique of Hu (1994). A 14-segment 21 Body Landmark computer simulation model was personalized for the gymnast. Symmetry was assumed, as the motion was planar in nature. Moreover, the recorded data of these gymnasts were divided into the general group and the outstanding one. Statistical correlation analyzes (Pearson product-moment correlation) and t-test were used to analyze the data of these two groups.


From the comparison between the two groups of the gymnasts investigated in this research. It was pointed out that the angle of landing acted by the gymnasts in the outstanding group is smaller than those in the general group. Furthermore, the vertical speed and height at the instance of take off are significantly faster and higher in the outstanding group. The time of landing is longer because the preparation for landing is done earlier in this group. Moreover, there is more time to buff muscles in order to decrease body’s lowering preparation for landing. Since all points above are related to height of second backwards, this research gives following suggestion to promote height of second backward as well as to produce stronger angular momentum for the necessary power while the body in the air. The suggestions are increasing
vertical speed and adjusting the right angle while taking off to perform the second backwards well.


The conclusion of this research can be summarized. The height of the first backward acted by every gymnast is lower than his second one and most of them consider their second backward to be the main exercise to present their skills. This information conveys that all the gymnastics in this research regard their first backward as an action for connection. Therefore, two points of recommendation can be offered to gymnasts. First, the first backward can be substituted by "Flic-flac" without hand support (whip back)". Second, the first backward in successive backwards can be acted directly in order to diminish the consuming of energy and space (floor exercise area).


[1]. Hu, De-Gui. (1994).The study of Chinese human segment parameters using CT method. The Science of Physical Education, 11(4). 50-58.




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