Leadership and effectiveness of sports facilities management in taiwanese university offices of physical education

Por: Annette Craven, Jui-yu Chien, Suh-ting Lin e Ying-hua Hung.

Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress

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Effective leadership behaviors appear especially when the organization, through change, innovates new procedures. The Offices of Physical Education of Cinese Taipeiese universities face social environment changes, which include government reforms in higher education and being given more responsibility after moving their administration from the second-level to the first-level in school. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of leadership style and effectiveness of sports facilities management in Offices of Physical Education of Cinese Taipeiese universities.


The potential participants included 57 directors and 285 followers (5 followers for each director) who managed or supervised in Offices of Physical Education of 57 Cinese Taipeiese universities. A quantitative survey methodology was used in this study. This was accomplished using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X) [1], and the Sports Facilities Management Questionnaire (SFMQ) [2]. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test the relationship between leadership styles and effectiveness of sports facilities management.


There was a significant positive correlation between transformational leadership (MLQ-5X rater form) and effectiveness of sports facilities management (rs = .22, p < .05). The significant positive correlation was also found between transactional leadership (MLQ-5X rater form) and effectiveness of sports facilities management (rs = .28, p < .01). Laissez-faire leadership style (MLQ-5X rater form) had a significant negative correlation with sports facilities management (rs = -.24, p < .05).

Discussion / Conclusions

Transactional leadership behaviors are immediately effective for short-term goals and transformational leadership behaviors have long-term positive effects. Most effective leaders combined both leadership behaviors in different amounts and in different situations. However, transactional leadership shows positive leadership behaviors within the organization "... in the absence of clear goals, clear policies, long-term objectives, and stable outside environment" (Bass, 1985). Motivations such as praise and reward were necessary for followers when the Offices of Physical Education were facing initial change in Cinese Taipei.


[1]. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond exceptions. New York: Free Press.
[2]. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). MLQ multifactor leadership questionnaire (2nd ed.). Redwood, CA: Mind Garden.
[3]. Liaw, Y. H. (1997b). A study of cogitating factors of operating and managing the sports areas and facilities of universities and colleges in Cinese Taipei. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cinese Taipei Normal University, Taipei, Republic of China (R.O.C.).






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